COLOR: Heartwood and sapwood are similar, with sapwood lighter in color; most pieces have a reddish tone. Slightly redder than white oak.
GRAIN: Open, slightly coarser (more porous) than white oak. Plainsawn boards have a plumed or flared grain appearance; riftsawn has a tighter grain pattem, low figuring; quartersawn has a flake pattern, some�times called tiger rays or butterflies.
HARDNESS (JANKA): Northern 1290 (benchmark).
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Average (change coefficient .00369).
DURABILITY: Stiff and dense; resists wear, with high shock resistance, though less durable than white oak.
IMAGE FINISH:Top portion is finished with water-base urethane; bottom with oil-modified polyurethane.